COMPARATIVE STUDY
JOURNAL ARTICLE

Value of soluble TREM-1, procalcitonin, and C-reactive protein serum levels as biomarkers for detecting bacteremia among sepsis patients with new fever in intensive care units: a prospective cohort study

Longxiang Su, Bingchao Han, Changting Liu, Liling Liang, Zhaoxu Jiang, Jie Deng, Peng Yan, Yanhong Jia, Dan Feng, Lixin Xie
BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 July 18, 12: 157
22809118

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to explore the diagnostic value of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (sTREM-1), procalcitonin (PCT), and C-reactive protein (CRP) serum levels for differentiating sepsis from SIRS, identifying new fever caused by bacteremia, and assessing prognosis when new fever occurred.

METHODS: We enrolled 144 intensive care unit (ICU) patients: 60 with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and 84 with sepsis complicated by new fever at more than 48 h after ICU admission. Serum sTREM-1, PCT, and CRP levels were measured on the day of admission and at the occurrence of new fever (>38.3°C) during hospitalization. Based on the blood culture results, the patients were divided into a blood culture-positive bacteremia group (33 patients) and blood culture-negative group (51 patients). Based on 28-day survival, all patients, both blood culture-positive and -negative, were further divided into survivor and nonsurvivor groups.

RESULTS: On ICU day 1, the sepsis group had higher serum sTREM-1, PCT, and CRP levels compared with the SIRS group (P <0.05). The areas under the curve (AUC) for these indicators were 0.868 (95% CI, 0.798-0.938), 0.729 (95% CI, 0.637-0.821), and 0.679 (95% CI, 0.578-0.771), respectively. With 108.9 pg/ml as the cut-off point for serum sTREM-1, sensitivity was 0.83 and specificity was 0.81. There was no statistically significant difference in serum sTREM-1 or PCT levels between the blood culture-positive and -negative bacteremia groups with ICU-acquired new fever. However, the nonsurvivors in the blood culture-positive bacteremia group had higher levels of serum sTREM-1 and PCT (P <0.05), with a prognostic AUC for serum sTREM-1 of 0.868 (95% CI, 0.740-0.997).

CONCLUSIONS: Serum sTREM-1, PCT, and CRP levels each have a role in the early diagnosis of sepsis. Serum sTREM-1, with the highest sensitivity and specificity of all indicators studied, is especially notable. sTREM-1, PCT, and CRP levels are of no use in determining new fever caused by bacteremia in ICU patients, but sTREM-1 levels reflect the prognosis of bacteremia.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrial.gov identifier NCT01410578.

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