JOURNAL ARTICLE
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

Fish oil supplementation in early infancy modulates developing infant immune responses

N D'Vaz, S J Meldrum, J A Dunstan, T F Lee-Pullen, J Metcalfe, B J Holt, M Serralha, M K Tulic, T A Mori, S L Prescott
Clinical and Experimental Allergy 2012, 42 (8): 1206-16
22805468

BACKGROUND: Maternal fish oil supplementation during pregnancy has been associated with altered infant immune responses and a reduced risk of infant sensitization and eczema.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of early postnatal fish oil supplementation on infant cellular immune function at 6 months of age in the context of allergic disease.

METHODS: In a double-blind randomized controlled trial (ACTRN12606000281594), 420 infants of high atopic risk received fish oil [containing 280 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and 110 mg eicosapentanoic acid (EPA)] or control oil daily from birth to 6 months. One hundred and twenty infants had blood collected at 6 months of age. Fatty acid levels, induced cytokine responses, T cell subsets and monocyte HLA-DR expression were assessed at 6 months of age. Infant allergies were assessed at 6 and 12 months of age.

RESULTS: DHA and EPA levels were significantly higher in the fish oil group and erythrocyte arachidonic acid (AA) levels were lower (all P < 0.05). Infants in the fish oil group had significantly lower IL-13 responses (P = 0.036) to house dust mite (HDM) and higher IFNγ (P = 0.035) and TNF (P = 0.017) responses to phytohaemaglutinin (PHA). Infants with relatively high DHA levels had lower Th2 responses to allergens including lower IL-13 to β-lactoglobulin (BLG) (P = 0.020), and lower IL-5 to BLG (P = 0.045).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Postnatal fish oil supplementation increased infant n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels and associated with lowered allergen-specific Th2 responses and elevated polyclonal Th1 responses. Our results add to existing evidence of n-3 PUFA having immunomodulatory properties that are potentially allergy-protective.

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