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JOURNAL ARTICLE

Novel presentations of congenital hyperinsulinism due to mutations in the MODY genes: HNF1A and HNF4A

Diana E Stanescu, Nkecha Hughes, Bernard Kaplan, Charles A Stanley, Diva D De León
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2012, 97 (10): E2026-30
22802087

CONTEXT: Inactivating mutations in HNF1A and HNF4A cause the maturity-onset diabetes of youth (MODY)-3 and MODY1 forms of monogenic diabetes, respectively. Children carrying HNF4A (MODY1) mutations can present in early infancy with macrosomia and diazoxide-responsive hyperinsulinism.

OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to describe three novel cases of hyperinsulinism associated with MODY1 and MODY3 mutations.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Clinical data were obtained from chart review. Gene sequencing was performed on genomic DNA.

RESULTS: Case 1 was diagnosed at 20 months with persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia and was found to have a novel MODY3 HNF1A mutation, carried by her father who had diabetes. Case 2 was diagnosed with diazoxide-responsive hyperinsulinism at 3 months of age and had complete resolution of hyperinsulinism by 4 yr. She was found to have a novel MODY3 HNF1A missense mutation, also carried by her father. Case 3 presented as a newborn with diazoxide-responsive hyperinsulinism and later developed renal Fanconi syndrome, hypophosphatemic rickets, and hepatic glycogenosis. Although the latter's features suggested Fanconi-Bickel syndrome, sequencing of the SLC2A2 gene was normal. The patient was found to have a known MODY1 mutation in HNF4A. In all cases, the hyperinsulinism improved with age.

CONCLUSIONS: The first two cases demonstrate that mutations in HNF1A (MODY3) can cause hyperinsulinism early in life and diabetes later, similar to the phenotype recently reported for HNF4A (MODY1) mutations. Case 3 indicates that the effects of HNF4A mutations in infancy may extend beyond pancreatic β-cells to produce a disorder similar to glucose transporter 2 deficiency involving both liver glycogen metabolism and renal tubular transport.

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