[Efficacy of continuous blood purification on rescue therapy of the critically ill children with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome]

Yu-cai Zhang, Liang Xu, Qun-fang Rong, Yan Zhu, Rong-xin Chen
Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics 2012, 50 (3): 188-92

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of continuous blood purification(CBP) in the treatment of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) in children.

METHODS: One hundred and forty seven cases of ALI/ARDS were hospitalized to our pediatric intensive care unit, and 32 cases were treated with continuous blood purification (CBP) from June, 2006 to May, 2011. The model for CBP was continuous veno-venous hemofiltration dialysis (CVVHDF). CBP treatment persisted for at least 8 hours and replacement + dialysis fluid dose was 35 - 100 ml/(kg·h). The clinical outcome measures included the mortality rate at 28th day, respiratory index (FiO2/PO2), dynamic lung compliance (Cdyn), arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2), mechanical ventilation parameters, vasoactive drug dose and lung X-ray changes.

RESULTS: In totally 147 cases of ALI/ARDS, 89 cases (60.5%) were male and 58 (39.5%) were female, mean age was (43.4 ± 36.7) months. Death occurred in 54 cases, the total mortality was 36.7%. The cause of ALI/ARDS was mainly severe pneumonia, severe sepsis, and leukemia or tumor diseases. There were significant differences in severity of illness between the CBP treatment group and non-CBP treatment group on Pediatric risk of score mortality (PRISM) III score (15.3 vs. 12.7, P < 0.05) and pediatric critical illness score (66.8 ± 19.3 vs. 74.6 ± 17.7, P < 0.05). The average duration of CBP treatment was 52 hours (12 hours to 232 hours). PaO2/FiO2 and Cdyn were improved after 2 hours CBP treatment compared with those before CBP treatment (P < 0.05), mechanical ventilation parameters including fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2), peak inspiratory pressure (PiP) and positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) were reduced. The use of vasoactive drugs in patients with MODS and shock gradually declined. The average ventilator-free days of the two groups did not show significant difference (P > 0.05). The mortality on CBP treatment group and non-treatment group were 37.5% and 36.5%, respectively, the difference was not significant (P > 0.05).

CONCLUSION: CBP adjuvant treatment for ALI/ ARDS could reduce pulmonary edema, improve PaO2/FiO2 and Cdyn, and improve mechanical ventilation parameters. CBP may be a very promising treatment for ALI/ARDS in children.

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