JOURNAL ARTICLE

Duplicate gene evolution, homoeologous recombination, and transcriptome characterization in allopolyploid cotton

Lex E Flagel, Jonathan F Wendel, Joshua A Udall
BMC Genomics 2012, 13: 302
22768919

BACKGROUND: Modern allotetraploid cotton contains an "A" and "D" genome from an ancestral polyploidy event that occurred approximately 1-2 million years ago. Diploid A- and D-genome species can be compared to the A- and D-genomes found within these allotetraploids to make evolutionary inferences about polyploidy. In this paper we present a comprehensive EST assembly derived from diploid and model allotetraploid cottons and demonstrate several evolutionary inferences regarding genic evolution that can be drawn from these data.

RESULTS: We generated a set of cotton expressed sequence tags (ESTs), comprising approximately 4.4 million Sanger and next-generation (454) transcripts supplemented by approximately 152 million Illumina reads from diploid and allotetraploid cottons. From the EST alignments we inferred 259,192 genome-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Molecular evolutionary analyses of protein-coding regions demonstrate that the rate of nucleotide substitution has increased among both allotetraploid genomes relative to the diploids, and that the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions has increased in one of the two polyploid lineages we sampled. We also use these SNPs to show that a surprisingly high percentage of duplicate genes (~7 %) show a signature of non-independent evolution in the allotetraploid nucleus, having experienced one or more episodes of nonreciprocal homoeologous recombination (NRHR).

CONCLUSIONS: In this study we characterize the functional and mutational properties of the cotton transcriptome, produce a large genome-specific SNP database, and detect illegitimate genetic exchanges between duplicate genomes sharing a common allotetraploid nucleus. Our findings have important implications for our understanding of the consequences of polyploidy and duplicate gene evolution. We demonstrate that cotton genes have experienced an increased rate of molecular evolution following duplication by polyploidy, and that polyploidy has enabled considerable levels of nonreciprocal exchange between homoeologous genes.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
22768919
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"