Radiologically isolated syndrome—incidental magnetic resonance imaging findings suggestive of multiple sclerosis, a systematic review

Tobias Granberg, Juha Martola, Maria Kristoffersen-Wiberg, Peter Aspelin, Sten Fredrikson
Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research 2013, 19 (3): 271-80
With increasing availability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), there is also an increase in incidental abnormal findings. MRI findings suggestive of multiple sclerosis in persons without typical multiple sclerosis symptoms and with normal neurological findings are defined as radiologically isolated syndrome (RIS). Half of the persons with RIS have their initial MRI because of headache, and some have a subclinical cognitive impairment similar to that seen in multiple sclerosis. Radiological measurements also show a similarity between RIS and multiple sclerosis. Approximately two-thirds of persons with RIS show radiological progression and one-third develop neurological symptoms during mean follow-up times of up to five years. Cervical cord lesions are important predictors of clinical conversion. Management has to be individualised, but initiation of disease modifying therapy is controversial and not recommended outside of clinical trials since its effects have not been studied in RIS. Future studies should try to establish the prevalence and long-term prognosis of RIS, its impact on quality of life, and define the role of disease modifying therapy in RIS.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"

We want to hear from doctors like you!

Take a second to answer a survey question.