Evaluation of stem aqueous extract and synthesized silver nanoparticles using Cissus quadrangularis against Hippobosca maculata and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

Thirunavukkarasu Santhoshkumar, Abdul Abdul Rahuman, Asokan Bagavan, Sampath Marimuthu, Chidambaram Jayaseelan, Arivarasan Vishnu Kirthi, Chinnaperumal Kamaraj, Govindasamy Rajakumar, Abdul Abduz Zahir, Gandhi Elango, Kanayairam Velayutham, Moorthy Iyappan, Chinnadurai Siva, Loganathan Karthik, Kokati Venkata Bhaskara Rao
Experimental Parasitology 2012, 132 (2): 156-65
The present study was to determine the efficacies of anti-parasitic activities of synthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using stem aqueous extract of Cissus quadrangularis against the adult of hematophagous fly, Hippobosca maculata (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), and the larvae of cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). Contact toxicity method was followed to determine the potential of parasitic activity. Twelve milliliters of stem aqueous extract of C. quadrangularis was treated with 88 ml of 1mM silver nitrate (AgNO(3)) solution at room temperature for 30 min and the resulting solution was yellow-brown color indicating the formation extracellular synthesis of Ag NPs. The synthesized Ag NPs were characterized with UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The synthesized Ag NPs were recorded by UV-visible spectrum at 420 nm and XRD patterns showed the nanoparticles crystalline in nature. FTIR analysis confirmed that the bioreduction of Ag((+)) ions to Ag NPs were due to the reduction by capping material of plant extract. FESEM image of Ag NPs showed spherical and oval in shape. By using the Bragg's Law and Scherrer's constant, the average mean size of synthesized Ag NPs was 42.46 nm. The spot EDX analysis showed the complete chemical composition of the synthesized Ag NPs. The mortality obtained by the synthesized Ag NPs from the C. quadrangularis was more effective than the aqueous extract of C. quadrangularis and AgNO(3) solution (1 mM). The adulticidal activity was observed in the aqueous extract, AgNO(3) solution and synthesized Ag NPs against the adult of H. maculata with LC(50) values of 37.08, 40.35 and 6.30 mg/L; LC(90) values of 175.46, 192.17 and 18.14 mg/L and r(2) values of 0.970, 0.992 and 0.969, respectively. The maximum efficacy showed in the aqueous extract, AgNO(3) solution and synthesized Ag NPs against the larvae of R. (B.) microplus with LC(50) values of 50.00, 21.72 and 7.61 mg/L; LC(90) values of 205.12, 82.99 and 22.68 mg/L and r(2) values of 0.968, 0.945 and 0.994, respectively. The present study is the first report on antiparasitic activity of the experimental plant extract and synthesized Ag NPs. This is an ideal eco-friendly and inexpensive approach for the control of H. maculata and R. (B.) microplus.

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