Impact of gender and age on outcomes of tibial artery endovascular interventions in critical limb ischemia

Natalie Domenick, Naveed U Saqib, Luke K Marone, Robert Y Rhee, Michel S Makaroun, Rabih A Chaer
Annals of Vascular Surgery 2012, 26 (7): 937-45

BACKGROUND: Female sex and older age are known risk factors for adverse outcomes in peripheral artery disease. This study reports on the outcomes of tibial artery endovascular intervention (TAEI) by age and gender in patients treated for critical limb ischemia.

METHODS: All TAEIs for tissue loss or rest pain (Rutherford classes 4, 5, and 6) from 2004 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Patient demographics, comorbidities, intervention sites, complications, and outcome measurements, including limb salvage, wound healing, and patency, were recorded for each patient. Data were analyzed by gender and age using Fisher exact test, multivariate logistic regression, and Cox proportional hazards regression.

RESULTS: Two hundred twenty-one limbs (201 patients, 40% female) were treated for critical limb ischemia (74% with tissue loss, 26% with rest pain). Mean age of the patients was 73.3 years (39% were aged ≥80 years). Comorbidities and indications for intervention were comparable. Isolated TAEI was performed in 46% of the limbs, whereas multilevel interventions were performed in 54%. Mean follow-up period was 8.7 ± 7.3 months. Complications were comparable between genders and ages (P = not significant [NS]). Limb salvage rate was 88% and was comparable by gender (P = NS). Major amputation was less frequent in octogenarians (6% vs. 16%, P = 0.03). Neither gender nor age was a predictor of limb loss (P = NS), but renal insufficiency was (hazard ratio = 2.81, 95% confidence interval = 1.14-6.90, P = 0.02). Age ≥80 years was a predictor of impaired wound healing (hazard ratio = 1.57, 95% confidence interval = 1.04-2.37, P = 0.03), but gender was not (P = NS). Overall primary patency rate was 62% at 1 year and was similar in women and octogenarians (P = NS). Overall reintervention rate was 53% at 1 year and was higher in women (65% vs. 46%, P = 0.03), but was not affected by age (P = NS).

CONCLUSIONS: TAEI outcomes do not appear to be adversely affected by gender or age. Limb salvage appears equivalent in octogenarians, with amputations occurring less frequently. Women also appear to have outcomes similar to men after TAEIs, but may require repeat interventions to achieve equivalent limb salvage rates.

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