Toxicological evaluation of 80% methanol extract of Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) P.H. Raven leaves (Onagraceae) in BALB/c mice

Haidar Kadum Yakob, Abd Manaf Uyub, Shaida Fariza Sulaiman
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2012 August 1, 142 (3): 663-8

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) P. H. Raven (Family: Onagraceae), as a traditional Malay herbal medicine,has been used to treat gastrointestinal complaints such as diarrhea and dysentery.

AIM OF THE STUDY: To date there is no safety information about long term use of Ludwigia octovalvis, a traditionally used medicinal plant in Malaysia. Current study is thus aimed to determine the toxicity profile of the 80% methanolic extract of L. octovalvis by evaluating its acute and subacute toxicity in BALB/c mice.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the acute toxicity study, a single dose of 5000 mg/kg of the extract was administered orally to six mice (3 males and 3 females). General behaviour, mortality and toxic symptoms were determined daily for 14 days. For the subacute toxicity, four groups of 12 mice of either sex received distilled water (control), 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg of the extract daily for 28 consecutive days by oral gavage. The animals were observed daily for abnormal clinical signs and death. Body weight, relative organ weight, haematological and biochemical parameters of blood as well as heart, kidney, liver, lung and spleen tissues histology were evaluated.

RESULTS: In acute and subacute toxicity, the extract did not produce mortality or morbidity. A significant increase (p<0.05) in WBC count and significant decrease in ALT, AST and ALP levels were only observed in males and females that received 400 mg/kg of the extract, while a significant decrease in the cholesterol level was observed at the highest dose (800 mg/kg). Gross examination of liver, kidney, spleen, lung and heart showed normal histological feature.

CONCLUSIONS: Repeated administration of L. octovalvis extract at dose levels of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg/day for 28 consecutive days to male and female mice did not cause any lethality nor produce any toxicological effects. The results suggest that the extract contains biologically active principles which may have immunostimulatory, hepatoprotective and cardiovascular protective properties.

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