Differences in prevalence, extent, severity, and prognosis of coronary artery disease among patients with and without diabetes undergoing coronary computed tomography angiography: results from 10,110 individuals from the CONFIRM (COronary CT Angiography EvaluatioN For Clinical Outcomes): an InteRnational Multicenter Registry

Jamal S Rana, Allison Dunning, Stephan Achenbach, Mouaz Al-Mallah, Matthew J Budoff, Filippo Cademartiri, Tracy Q Callister, Hyuk-Jae Chang, Victor Y Cheng, Kavitha Chinnaiyan, Benjamin J W Chow, Ricardo Cury, Augustin Delago, Gudrun Feuchtner, Martin Hadamitzky, Jörg Hausleiter, Philipp Kaufmann, Ronald P Karlsberg, Yong-Jin Kim, Jonathon Leipsic, Troy M Labounty, Fay Y Lin, Erica Maffei, Gilbert Raff, Todd C Villines, Leslee J Shaw, Daniel S Berman, James K Min
Diabetes Care 2012, 35 (8): 1787-94

OBJECTIVE: We examined the prevalence, extent, severity, and prognosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) in individuals with and without diabetes (DM) who are similar in CAD risk factors.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We identified 23,643 consecutive individuals without known CAD undergoing coronary computed tomography angiography. A total of 3,370 DM individuals were propensity matched in a 1-to-2 fashion to 6,740 unique non-DM individuals. CAD was defined as none, nonobstructive (1-49% stenosis), or obstructive (≥ 50% stenosis). All-cause mortality was assessed by risk-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models.

RESULTS: At a 2.2-year follow-up, 108 (3.2%) and 115 (1.7%) deaths occurred among DM and non-DM individuals, respectively. Compared with non-DM individuals, DM individuals possessed higher rates of obstructive CAD (37 vs. 27%) and lower rates of having normal arteries (28 vs. 36%) (P < 0.0001). CAD extent was higher for DM versus non-DM individuals for obstructive one-vessel disease (19 vs. 14%), two-vessel disease (9 vs. 7%), and three-vessel disease (9 vs. 5%) (P < 0.0001 for comparison), with higher per-segment stenosis in the proximal and mid-segments of every coronary artery (P < 0.001 for all). Compared with non-DM individuals with no CAD, risk of mortality for DM individuals was higher for those with no CAD (hazard ratio 3.63 [95% CI 1.67-7.91]; P = 0.001), nonobstructive CAD (5.25 [2.56-10.8]; P < 0.001), one-vessel disease (6.39 [2.98-13.7]; P < 0.0001), two-vessel disease (12.33 [5.622-27.1]; P < 0.0001), and three-vessel disease (13.25 [6.15-28.6]; P < 0.0001).

CONCLUSIONS: Compared with matched non-DM individuals, DM individuals possess higher prevalence, extent, and severity of CAD. At comparable levels of CAD, DM individuals experience higher risk of mortality compared with non-DM individuals.

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