JOURNAL ARTICLE
Add like
Add dislike
Add to saved papers

Force necessary to fracture the orbital floor.

Current thought on the pathophysiology of orbital wall fractures postulates either a "hydraulic" or a "buckling" mechanism. Evidence from cadaver, dried skull, and theoretical model studies supports both theories. No in vivo data, human or nonhuman primate, are available that quantitate the force necessary to fracture the orbital floor by either of the two mechanisms. We developed an apparatus that delivers quantifiable force only to the globe, without occluding the orbital opening or striking the orbital rim. We used it on 11 anesthetized Macaca fascicularis monkeys. Following a single bilateral application, the orbits were exenterated, and the orbital walls and orbital contents were examined to determine the extent of injuries. Fractures were described, diagrammed, and photographed. Fracture of the orbital floor was consistently produced at and above a force of 2.08 J. Posterior ruptures of five eyes occurred over the same range. We provide the first accurate measurements of the force required to produce orbital blow-out fractures in a live primate model. We show that orbital floor fractures can occur at low energies with direct ocular trauma only ("pure" hydraulic mechanism). Orbital wall fractures failed to protect the globe from rupture in 23% of cases.

Full text links

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Group 7SearchHeart failure treatmentPapersTopicsCollectionsEffects of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Patients With Heart Failure Importance: Only 1 class of glucose-lowering agents-sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors-has been reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular events primarily by reducingSeptember 1, 2017: JAMA CardiologyAssociations of albuminuria in patients with chronic heart failure: findings in the ALiskiren Observation of heart Failure Treatment study.CONCLUSIONS: Increased UACR is common in patients with heart failure, including non-diabetics. Urinary albumin creatininineJul, 2011: European Journal of Heart FailureRandomized Controlled TrialEffects of Liraglutide on Clinical Stability Among Patients With Advanced Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Randomized Clinical Trial.Review

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Read by QxMD is copyright © 2021 QxMD Software Inc. All rights reserved. By using this service, you agree to our terms of use and privacy policy.

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app