A prospective, controlled clinical trial evaluating the clinical radiological and aesthetic outcome after 5 years of immediately placed implants in sockets exhibiting periapical pathology

Ronald E Jung, Balthasar Zaugg, Alexander O H Philipp, Thomas C Truninger, David W Siegenthaler, Christoph H F Hämmerle
Clinical Oral Implants Research 2013, 24 (8): 839-46

OBJECTIVE: The aim was to compare the clinical, aesthetic and radiological outcome of immediately placed implants in sockets with or without periapical pathology 5 years after placement.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-seven patients were followed 5 years after immediate implant placement (test-group: 12 patients with periapical pathologies; control-group: 15 patients without periapical pathology). Clinical (FMBS, FMPS, CAL, keratinized mucosa), aesthetical (length of clinical crown, Papilla index), and radiological (vertical distance implant shoulder to first bone to implant contact (IS-BIC)) parameters were assessed. Both 95% confidence intervals, as well as results of statistical tests (one-sample, two-sample, paired t-test) were provided.

RESULTS: After 5 years the implant survival rate was 100% for all 27 implants. In the test group the width of the keratinized mucosa increased significantly over the observation period (0.8 ± 1.0 mm). Concerning aesthetic parameters at the 3-month as well as at the 5-year examination no statistically significant difference could be found between the two groups. In the control-group the papilla mesial and distal to the implant increased statistically significant during the observation period by 0.5 ± 0.5 and 0.4 ± 0.6 index score points, respectively. The position of the gingival margin at the implant site and the two neighboring teeth remained stable. At the 5-year visit IS-BIC measured between 1.4 ± 0.5 mm (mesial, control) and 1.7 ± 0.7 mm (distal, test), no significant difference could be found between the two groups. Over the observation period no statistically significant change of IS-BIC could be found in the test- as well as in the control-group. None of the examined radiographs revealed any signs of retrograde peri-implantitis.

CONCLUSION: The replacement of teeth exhibiting periapical pathologies by implants placed immediately after tooth extraction can be a successful treatment modality with no disadvantages in clinical, aesthetical and radiological parameters to immediately placed implants into healthy sockets.

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