Novel approach to therapeutic ERCP after long-limb Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery using transgastric self-expandable metal stents: experimental outcomes and first human case study (with videos)

Todd H Baron, Louis M Wong Kee Song, Lincoln E V V Ferreira, Thomas C Smyrk
Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 2012, 75 (6): 1258-63

BACKGROUND: ERCP in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) patients is challenging. Balloon-assisted enteroscopy (BAE) allows access to the excluded stomach with creation of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). Transgastric self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) placement may allow antegrade ERCP in 1 session.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of transgastric endoscopy and ERCP through a newly created PEG augmented by SEMS placement.

DESIGN: Prospective live animal study; human case report.

SETTINGS: Animal laboratory and endoscopy units, tertiary care medical center.

SUBJECTS: Nine domestic pigs; 1 patient.

INTERVENTIONS: PEG tract with SEMS placement; transgastric endoscopy through SEMS.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Technical success, feasibility of transgastric endoscopy.

RESULTS: Successful SEMS deployment was achieved in 9 of 9 animals. The stent was removed in 6 animals; 3 were killed within 24 hours (group A) and 3 were killed 1 week later (group B). In 3 animals, stents remained in place, they were killed 9 to 15 days later (group C). Duodenoscopy was difficult in 1 animal from group A resulting in stent dislodgment. Peristomal infection occurred in 1 animal in group B. In group C, 1 stent was buried subcutaneously and 1 completely migrated out. Necropsy showed no peritoneal fluid or peritonitis in any animal. In the 1 patient, BAE-assisted PEG and SEMS placement in the excluded stomach allowed antegrade ERCP and biliary sphincterotomy without adverse events.

LIMITATIONS: Small number of subjects.

CONCLUSIONS: Performance of PEG with immediate SEMS placement allows for antegrade transgastric ERCP during 1 procedure. With the use of BAE, retrograde PEG/SEMS in excluded stomach allows therapeutic ERCP without need for surgery.

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