Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids improve responsiveness to clopidogrel after percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with cytochrome P450 2C19 loss-of-function polymorphism

Grzegorz Gajos, Jarosław Zalewski, Jadwiga Nessler, Krzysztof Zmudka, Anetta Undas, Wiesława Piwowarska
Kardiologia Polska 2012, 70 (5): 439-45

BACKGROUND: Antiplatelet properties of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been demonstrated in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). It is unknown whether omega-3 PUFA can enhance platelet inhibition on standard aspirin and clopidogrel treatment in the setting of CYP2C19 loss-of-function polymorphism.

AIM: To investigate whether omega-3 PUFA are able to modify platelet responsiveness to clopidogrel therapy in patients with CYP2C19 loss-of-function polymorphism undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

METHODS: 63 patients with stable CAD undergoing PCI (48 males, mean age 63.2 ± 9.6 years) were enrolled into an investigator- initiated, prospective, single-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised study. Patients on standard dual antiplatelet therapy (aspirin 75 mg daily and clopidogrel 600 mg loading dose followed by 75 mg daily) were assigned to receive the addition of 1 g of omega-3 ethyl esters (n = 33) or placebo (n = 30) for 1 month. Platelet function was measured serially by light transmittance aggregometry in response to 5 and 20 μmol/L ADP at baseline, 12 h, 3-5 days and 30 days after randomisation. CYP2C19*2 was genotyped at baseline.

RESULTS: No significant differences were found in baseline variables, including the frequency of CYP2C19 genetic variants. At least one loss-of-function variant of CYP2C19*2 was found in 19 (30.2%) patients. In patients with CYP2C19*1/*2 and *2/*2 variants, maximal platelet aggregation induced by 5 and 20 μmol/L ADP was reduced by 21.4% (p = 0.006) and 14.3% (p = 0.041), respectively, after 1 month of treatment with omega-3 PUFA as compared to placebo. The beneficial effect of omega-3 PUFA was demonstrated in carriers of CYP2C19 loss-of-function polymorphism, whereas no differences in platelet aggregation between the omega-3 PUFA and placebo groups were found in patients with the 1*/1* variant.

CONCLUSIONS: The addition of omega-3 ethyl esters significantly potentiates platelet response to clopidogrel after PCI mostly in patients with CYP2C19 loss-of-function polymorphism.

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