Dietary carbohydrate/lipid ratios affect stress, oxidative status and non-specific immune responses of fingerling blunt snout bream, Megalobrama amblycephala

Xiang-Fei Li, Wen-Bin Liu, Kang-Le Lu, Wei-Na Xu, Ying Wang
Fish & Shellfish Immunology 2012, 33 (2): 316-23
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary carbohydrate/lipid (CHO:L) ratios on stress, liver oxidative status and non-specific immune responses of fingerling blunt snout bream. Fish were fed six isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets containing various CHO:L ratios for 10 weeks. After the feeding trial, fish were challenged by Aeromonas hydrophila and survival rate was recorded for the next 10 days. The lowest plasma cortisol, lactate, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were all observed in fish fed a CHO:L ratio of 5.64. They were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those of fish offered the lowest CHO:L ratio, but showed little difference (P > 0.05) with those of fish fed the highest CHO:L ratio. This also held true for liver catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities, whereas the opposite was true for liver reduced glutathione contents, plasma lysozyme and alternative complement (ACH50) activities. Contrary to leucocyte counts, plasma glucose levels, liver malondialdehyde contents, blood haemoglobin contents and erythrocyte numbers all increased significantly (P < 0.05) with decreasing dietary CHO:L ratios. The highest plasma total protein and globulin content both observed in fish fed a CHO:L ratio of 2.45 was significantly (P < 0.01) higher than that of fish offered the lowest CHO:L ratio, but showed no statistical difference (P > 0.05) with that of the other groups. After challenge, fish fed the lowest CHO:L ratio obtained significantly (P < 0.05) low survival rate. However, survival rate showed little difference (P > 0.05) as dietary CHO:L ratios ranged from 3.67 to 24.20. The results of this study indicated that high dietary lipid may cause metabolic stress of fingerling blunt snout bream, as might consequently lead to the elevated liver oxidation rates, impaired liver function, depressed immunity and reduced resistance to A. hydrophila infection of this species, whereas the opposite was true for carbohydrate enriched diets.

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