Clinical properties of regional thalamic hemorrhages

Serhat Tokgoz, Seref Demirkaya, Semai Bek, Tayfun Kasıkcı, Zeki Odabasi, Gencer Genc, Mehmet Yucel
Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association 2013, 22 (7): 1006-12

BACKGROUND: Thalamic hemorrhage constitutes 6% to 25% of intracerebral hemorrhages. Vascular lesions affecting the thalamus may cause a variety of clinical symptoms. This retrospective study aims to evaluate localization of hemorrhage and clinical symptoms in patients with thalamic hemorrhage.

METHODS: One hundred and one patients with thalamic hemorrhage were examined retrospectively in our department. Hemorrhages were classified into 5 groups according to computed tomography: medial (thalamoperforate), anterolateral (tuberothalamic), posterolateral (thalamogeniculate), dorsal (posterior choroidal), and global. The relation between volume, localization, and penetration to adjacent structures/ventricles of hemorrhage and risk factors, clinical features, and prognosis were evaluated.

RESULTS: The study group included 101 patients. Eighty-two percent of the patients had hypertension, 19.8% had diabetes mellitus, 14.9% had cardiac disease, and 5.9% had chronic renal failure. Mean blood pressure was 173/101 mm Hg. Decreased Glasgow coma scale was significantly higher in the global hemorrhage group than in all regional groups (Chi-square, 10.54; P = .002). Medial group hemorrhages had a significantly higher rate than anterolateral, posterolateral, and dorsal intraventricular expansion. Out of speech disorders, 49% of patients had a right thalamic lesion (especially dysarthria) and 51% of patients had a left thalamic lesion (mostly aphasia).

CONCLUSIONS: In the study, we detected that the most important risk factor in thalamic hemorrhage is hypertension. The prognosis is worse in global and medial group hemorrhages, especially those which rupture to the ventricle, than the other groups. Thalamic lesions cause a variety of symptoms, including forms of aphasia, such as crossed dextral aphasia.

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