Left ventricular endocardial or triventricular pacing to optimize cardiac resynchronization therapy in a chronic canine model of ischemic heart failure

Pierre Bordachar, Nathan Grenz, Pierre Jais, Philippe Ritter, Christophe Leclercq, John M Morgan, Daniel Gras, Ping Yang
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology 2012 July 15, 303 (2): H207-15
Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is a proven treatment for heart failure but ~30% of patients appear to not benefit from the therapy. Left ventricular (LV) endocardial and multisite epicardial [triventricular (TriV)] pacing have been proposed as alternatives to traditional LV transvenous epicardial pacing, but no study has directly compared the hemodynamic effects of these approaches. Left bundle branch block ablation and repeated microembolizations were performed in dogs to induce electrical dysynchrony and to reduce LV ejection fraction to <35%. LVdP/dt(max) and other hemodynamic indexes were measured with a conductance catheter during LV epicardial, LV endocardial, biventricular (BiV) epicardial, BiV endocardial, and TriV pacing performed at three atrioventricular delays. LV endocardial pacing was obtained with a clinically available pacing system. The optimal site was defined as the site that increased dP/dt(max) by the largest percentage. Implantation of the endocardial lead was feasible in all canines (n = 8) without increased mitral regurgitation seen with transesophageal echocardiography and with full access to the different LV endocardial pacing sites. BiV endocardial pacing increased dP/dt(max) more than BiV epicardial and TriV pacing on average (P < 0.01) and at the optimal site (P < 0.01). There were no significant differences between BiV epicardial and TriV pacing. BiV endocardial pacing was superior to BiV epicardial and to TriV pacing in terms of acute hemodynamic response. Further investigation is needed to confirm the chronic benefit of this approach in humans.

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