Predicting prostate biopsy outcome: prostate health index (phi) and prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) are useful biomarkers

Matteo Ferro, Dario Bruzzese, Sisto Perdonà, Claudia Mazzarella, Ada Marino, Alessandra Sorrentino, Angelina Di Carlo, Riccardo Autorino, Giuseppe Di Lorenzo, Carlo Buonerba, Vincenzo Altieri, Angela Mariano, Vincenzo Macchia, Daniela Terracciano
Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry 2012 August 16, 413 (15-16): 1274-8
Indication for prostate biopsy is presently mainly based on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) serum levels and digital-rectal examination (DRE). In view of the unsatisfactory accuracy of these two diagnostic exams, research has focused on novel markers to improve pre-biopsy prostate cancer detection, such as phi and PCA3. The purpose of this prospective study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of phi and PCA3 for prostate cancer using biopsy as gold standard. Phi index (Beckman coulter immunoassay), PCA3 score (Progensa PCA3 assay) and other established biomarkers (tPSA, fPSA and %fPSA) were assessed before a 18-core prostate biopsy in a group of 251 subjects at their first biopsy. Values of %p2PSA and phi were significantly higher in patients with PCa compared with PCa-negative group (p<0.001) and also compared with high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) (p<0.001). PCA3 score values were significantly higher in PCa compared with PCa-negative subjects (p<0.001) and in HGPIN vs PCa-negative patients (p<0.001). ROC curve analysis showed that %p2PSA, phi and PCA3 are predictive of malignancy. In conclusion, %p2PSA, phi and PCA3 may predict a diagnosis of PCa in men undergoing their first prostate biopsy. PCA3 score is more useful in discriminating between HGPIN and non-cancer.

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