JOURNAL ARTICLE
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A prospective evaluation of neonatal hypoglycaemia in infants of women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

OBJECTIVE: To analyse first-day-of-life glucose levels in infants of women with gestational diabetes (GDM) and the influence of maternal, gestational and peripartum factors on the development of neonatal hypoglycaemia.

STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study including newborns of GDM mothers. Capillary blood glucose (CBG) was measured serially on the first day of life. CBG values were defined as normal (≥ 2.5 mmol/l), mild hypoglycaemia (2.2-2.4 mmol/l), moderate hypoglycaemia (1.6-2.1 mmol/l) and severe hypoglycaemia (<1.6 mmol/l).

RESULTS: One hundred and ninety infants were included: 23 (12.1%) presented mild, 20 (10.5%) moderate and only 5 (2.6%) severe hypoglycaemia. Hypoglycaemic infants were more frequently large-for-gestational-age (29.3% vs 11.3%, p=0.003), had lower umbilical cord pH (7.28 vs 7.31, p=0.03) and their mothers had more frequently been hyperglycaemic during labour (18.8% vs 8.5%, p=0.04). In multivariate analysis Pakistani origin (OR: 2.94; 95% CI: 1.14-7.55) and umbilical cord venous pH (OR: 0.04, 95% CI: 0.261-0.99) were significantly and independently associated with hypoglycaemia.

CONCLUSIONS: Mild and moderate neonatal hypoglycaemias were common although severe episodes were unusual in infants of women with GDM. Hypoglycaemia is mainly influenced by ethnicity and cord blood pH, although maternal peripartum glycaemic control and large-for-gestational-age condition may also play a role.

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