JOURNAL ARTICLE

Molecular diagnostic testing for Klinefelter syndrome and other male sex chromosome aneuploidies

Karl Hager, Kori Jennings, Seiyu Hosono, Susan Howell, Jeffrey R Gruen, Scott A Rivkees, Nicole R Tartaglia, Henry M Rinder
International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology 2012 April 23, 2012 (1): 8
22524164

BACKGROUND: Male sex chromosome aneuploidies are underdiagnosed despite concomitant physical and behavioral manifestations.

OBJECTIVE: To develop a non-invasive, rapid and high-throughput molecular diagnostic assay for detection of male sex chromosome aneuploidies, including 47,XXY (Klinefelter), 47,XYY, 48,XXYY and 48,XXXY syndromes.

METHODS: The assay utilizes three XYM and four XA markers to interrogate Y:X and X:autosome ratios, respectively. The seven markers were PCR amplified using genomic DNA isolated from a cohort of 323 males with aneuploid (n = 117) and 46,XY (n = 206) karyotypes. The resulting PCR products were subjected to Pyrosequencing, a quantitative DNA sequencing method.

RESULTS: Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were used to establish thresholds for the discrimination of aneuploid from normal samples. The XYM markers permitted the identification of 47,XXY, 48,XXXY and 47,XYY syndromes with 100% sensitivity and specificity in both purified DNA and buccal swab samples. The 48,XXYY karyotype was delineated by XA marker data from 46,XY; an X allele threshold of 43% also permitted detection of 48,XXYY with 100% sensitivity and specificity. Analysis of X chromosome-specific biallelic SNPs demonstrated that 43 of 45 individuals (96%) with 48,XXYY karyotype had two distinct X chromosomes, while 2 (4%) had a duplicate X, providing evidence that 48,XXYY may result from nondisjunction during early mitotic divisions of a 46,XY embryo.

CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative Pyrosequencing, with high-throughput potential, can detect male sex chromosome aneuploidies with 100% sensitivity.

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