Tick-borne diseases in cattle: applications of proteomics to develop new generation vaccines

Isabel Marcelino, André Martinho de Almeida, Miguel Ventosa, Ludovic Pruneau, Damien F Meyer, Dominique Martinez, Thierry Lefrançois, Nathalie Vachiéry, Ana Varela Coelho
Journal of Proteomics 2012 July 19, 75 (14): 4232-50
Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) affect 80% of the world's cattle population, hampering livestock production throughout the world. Livestock industry is important to rural populations not only as food supply, but also as a source of income. Tick control is usually achieved by using acaricides which are expensive, deleterious to the environment and can induce chemical resistance of vectors; the development of more effective and sustainable control methods is therefore required. Theileriosis, babesiosis, anaplasmosis and heartwater are the most important TBDs in cattle. Immunization strategies are currently available but with variable efficacy. To develop a new generation of vaccines which are more efficient, cheaper and safer, it is first necessary to better understand the mechanisms by which these parasites are transmitted, multiply and cause disease; this becomes especially difficult due to their complex life cycles, in vitro culture conditions and the lack of genetic tools to manipulate them. Proteomics and other complementary post-genomic tools such as transcriptomics and metabolomics in a systems biology context are becoming key tools to increase knowledge on the biology of infectious diseases. Herein, we present an overview of the so called "Omics" studies currently available on these tick-borne pathogens, giving emphasis to proteomics and how it may help to discover new vaccine candidates to control TBDs.

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