Double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using bone-patellar tendon-bone allograft: technique and 2- to 5-year follow-up

Dong Jiang, Ying-Fang Ao, Xi Gong, Yong-Jian Wang, Hao Luo, Lian-Xu Chen, Hai-Jun Wang, Xing Xie, Ji-Ying Zhang, Jia-Kuo Yu
American Journal of Sports Medicine 2012, 40 (5): 1084-92

BACKGROUND: Nonanatomic transtibial single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (SB-ACLR) with a bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) allograft has been used for a long time and has shown the same satisfactory clinical results as an autograft; however, it has not been reported if a double-bundle ACLR (DB-ACLR) could be performed with a BPTB allograft and achieve even better results.

HYPOTHESIS: The DB-ACLR with a BPTB allograft is technically feasible and will be superior to the SB technique in restoring better anterior and rotating stability.

STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2.

METHODS: The study was performed with 56 patients, and 52 (25 in the DB group and 27 in the SB group) of them were followed up at 2 to 5 years. With an irradiated deep-frozen BPTB allograft, a standard single-incision arthroscopic technique was used, and the graft was fixed with bioabsorbable interference screws on both the femoral and tibial sides. Outcome assessment at final follow-up included International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), Tegner, and Lysholm scores; side-to-side difference by conventional KT-2000 arthrometer; total anteroposterior (AP) laxity by the back-pushing KT-2000 arthrometer; pivot shift (0, +, ++); range of motion (ROM); and isokinetic muscle strength evaluation.

RESULTS: Mean follow-up was 47.3 ± 11.5 and 58.2 ± 6.6 months for the DB group and SB group, respectively. A statistically significant difference in favor of the DB group was found with the total AP laxity at 30° (P < .05). The overall incidence of pivot shift in the DB group (4% ++) was significantly lower than that in the SB group (26%: 19% + and 7% ++; P = .029). No significant differences were found between the 2 groups in terms of IKDC score, Lysholm score, Tegner score, conventional KT-2000 arthrometer anterior laxity, ROM, and muscle strength.

CONCLUSION: A DB-ACLR with a BPTB allograft is feasible and achieved more satisfactory results than the transtibial SB technique in terms of total AP stability and rotational stability in spite of no significant differences among other clinical parameters.

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