Does treatment of patent ductus arteriosus with cyclooxygenase inhibitors affect neonatal regional tissue oxygenation?

Mayoor Bhatt, Anna Petrova, Rajeev Mehta
Pediatric Cardiology 2012, 33 (8): 1307-14
The effect of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) treatment with cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors (indomethacin [INDO] and ibuprofen [IBU]) on regional oxygenation requires further clarification. The authors hypothesized that both INDO and IBU reduce regional tissue oxygenation in preterm neonates with PDA but that the risk is not uniform for different tissues and other factors may contribute. Regional cerebral (rSO(2-C)), renal (rSO(2-R)), and mesenteric (rSO(2-M)) tissue oxygenation measured by near-infrared spectroscopy and peripheral arterial oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry were recorded simultaneously before, during, and after treatment with the first dose of INDO or IBU in very preterm-born infants with PDA. Tissue-specific fractional oxygen extraction (FOE) was calculated using the rSO(2-C), rSO(2-R), rSO(2-M), and corresponding SpO(2) measurements. The findings showed a significant reduction in rSO(2-C), rSO(2-R), and rSO(2-M) and an increase in regional FOE after treatment with COX inhibitors in approximately one third of the 38 enrolled infants, which were associated with increased baseline regional tissue oxygen saturation (p < 0.01). However, the infants with posttreatment reduction of tissue oxygenation had significantly lower baseline rSO(2-C) (66.7 ± 8.1 vs 69.7 ± 8.1 %), rSO(2-R) (55.2 ± 10.8 vs 62.7 ± 11.8 %) and especially rSO(2-M) (37.8 ± 11.4 vs 46.7 ± 16.0 %) than the neonates with unchanged or increased tissue oxygenation. The two groups did not differ in terms of the risk for posttreatment reduction in regional tissue oxygenation with respect to either INDO or IBU treatment and their respective blood levels. Treatment of PDA with either INDO or IBU is associated with a 30-40 % risk for a reduction in regional tissue oxygenation, which is more pronounced in mesenteric tissue than in cerebral or renal tissue. Despite the inconsistency, reduction of regional tissue oxygenation in preterm infants with PDA is more likely associated with the administration of INDO than with the administration of IBU.

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