Selection of potential probiotic lactobacilli for cholesterol-lowering properties and their effect on cholesterol metabolism in rats fed a high-lipid diet

J Wang, H Zhang, X Chen, Y Chen, Menghebilige, Q Bao
Journal of Dairy Science 2012, 95 (4): 1645-54
The objectives of this study were to screen probiotic characteristics of lactobacilli isolated from traditionally homemade koumiss products in Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia of China, and to determine and compare the effect of the Lactobacillus strains in vivo on lipid metabolism in rats fed with a high-lipid diet. Three out of 68 strains of Lactobacillus isolated from the koumiss were screened for bile-salt resistance, acid tolerance, and different hypocholesterolemic properties. The cholesterol-lowering effects of the 3 screened strains were estimated in rats fed a high-lipid diet by determination of serum lipids, liver, and fecal cholesterol, fecal total bile acids, and short-chain fatty acids. After a 4-wk feeding period, in comparison with the control group, the groups LIP-1 and MG9-2 had a significant reduction in serum total cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and significantly increased high-density lipoprotein, the group E7301 had similar effects on serum lipids, but the change was not significant. The groups LIP-1, MG9-2 and E7301 had a significant reduction in liver cholesterol content and an increase in fecal cholesterol content compared with the control group. Total bile acid excretion was significantly higher in rats fed MG9-2 than the other groups. Rats fed diets containing lactic acid bacteria strains had significantly higher propionic acid and butyric acid concentrations in the feces compared with the control. Results indicated that the 3 screened Lactobacillus strains were able to lower cholesterol in vitro, and reduce cholesterol effectively in vivo. The mechanisms behind the hypocholesterolemic effect of 3 strains are likely to be diverse and will need further investigation.

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