Mobilized peripheral blood stem cells compared with bone marrow as the stem cell source for unrelated donor allogeneic transplantation with reduced-intensity conditioning in patients with acute myeloid leukemia in complete remission: an analysis from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation

Arnon Nagler, Myriam Labopin, Avichai Shimoni, Dietger Niederwieser, Ghulam J Mufti, Axel R Zander, Renate Arnold, Hildegard Greinix, Jan J Cornelissen, Graham H Jackson, Charles Craddock, Donald W Bunjes, Arnold Ganser, Nigel H Russell, Slawomira Kyrcz-Krzemien, Vanderson Rocha, Mohamad Mohty
Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation 2012, 18 (9): 1422-9
Reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic stem cell transplant (RIC-alloSCT) is being increasingly used for patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) with comorbidities. Few published data are currently available regarding for the use of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) compared to bone marrow (BM) in the RIC-alloSCT using unrelated donors (URDs). This retrospective report compared the outcomes of PBSC versus BM RIC-alloSCT. Between 2000 and 2007, 602 patients with AML in complete remission (CR) underwent RIC-alloSCT from URDs with PBSC (508) or BM (94) grafts. Recipient's age was higher in the PBSC versus BM groups 57 (range, 17-77 years) and 51 (range, 17-76 years), respectively (P < .0001). Leukemia features and disease status at RIC-alloSCT were also comparable between the PBSC versus BM groups. Engraftment was achieved in 97% and 96% with BM versus peripheral blood (PB), respectively. Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) grade >II was significantly higher in the PBSC group: 27% versus 12% in the BM group (P < .002). Similarly, chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD; at 2 years) was somewhat higher in the PBSC group with 43% ± 3% versus 35% ± 6% in the BM group, respectively (P = .04). The 2-year probabilities of leukemia-free survival (LFS) were 46% ± 3% for the PBSC group in comparison to 43% ± 6% for the BM transplant group (P = NS), whereas relapse incidence was significantly higher in the BM versus the PB transplant group: 46% ± 6% versus 32% ± 3%, respectively (P = .014). Non-relapse mortality (NRM) was significantly higher for the PBSC versus the BM group: 28% ± 2% versus 13% ± 4%, respectively (P = .004). In multivariate analysis, after adjustment for differences between both groups, the PBSC group was associated with a higher incidence of aGVHD (grade II-IV; hazard ratio [HR] = 2.33; P = .06), higher NRM (HR = 2.3; P = .015), and a decreased relapse incidence (HR, 0.61; P = .02) with no statistical difference of LFS between the 2 groups (P = .88). In conclusion, our results indicate significantly higher incidence of aGVHD and NRM and a lower incidence of relapse but not statistically different LFS comparing unrelated PBSC to BM grafts after RIC-alloSCT.

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