JOURNAL ARTICLE
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

Antioxidants for Alzheimer disease: a randomized clinical trial with cerebrospinal fluid biomarker measures

Douglas R Galasko, Elaine Peskind, Christopher M Clark, Joseph F Quinn, John M Ringman, Gregory A Jicha, Carl Cotman, Barbara Cottrell, Thomas J Montine, Ronald G Thomas, Paul Aisen
Archives of Neurology 2012, 69 (7): 836-41
22431837

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether antioxidant supplements presumed to target specific cellular compartments affected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers.

DESIGN: Double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

SETTING: Academic medical centers.

PARTICIPANTS: Subjects with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease.

INTERVENTION: Random assignment to treatment for 16 weeks with 800 IU/d of vitamin E (α-tocopherol) plus 500 mg/d of vitamin C plus 900 mg/d of α-lipoic acid (E/C/ALA); 400 mg of coenzyme Q 3 times/d; or placebo.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Changes from baseline to 16 weeks in CSF biomarkers related to Alzheimer disease and oxidative stress, cognition (Mini-Mental State Examination), and function (Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Activities of Daily Living Scale).

RESULTS: Seventy-eight subjects were randomized; 66 provided serial CSF specimens adequate for biochemical analyses. Study drugs were well tolerated, but accelerated decline in Mini-Mental State Examination scores occurred in the E/C/ALA group, a potential safety concern. Changes in CSF Aβ42, tau, and P-tau(181) levels did not differ between the 3 groups. Cerebrospinal fluid F2-isoprostane levels, an oxidative stress biomarker, decreased on average by 19% from baseline to week 16 in the E/C/ALA group but were unchanged in the other groups.

CONCLUSIONS: Antioxidants did not influence CSF biomarkers related to amyloid or tau pathology. Lowering of CSF F2-isoprostane levels in the E/C/ALA group suggests reduction of oxidative stress in the brain. However, this treatment raised the caution of faster cognitive decline, which would need careful assessment if longer-term clinical trials are conducted.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00117403.

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