JOURNAL ARTICLE
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Management of systolic anterior motion after mitral valve repair: an algorithm.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness and outcomes of an intraoperative and postoperative algorithm for managing systolic anterior motion (SAM) after mitral valve repair (MVRr).

METHODS: All consecutive patients who underwent MVRr for degenerative disease from January 2002 to June 2011 were included, with the data collected retrospectively. Patients who underwent MVRr for primary SAM were excluded from the study. Patients who developed SAM after the repair were systematically treated according to the algorithm. The intraoperative algorithm first involved medical management techniques, followed by surgical correction for significant SAM (mild or greater mitral regurgitation, left ventricular outflow tract gradient > 50 mm Hg). The postoperative algorithm focused on medical management and symptoms to guide the treatment decisions.

RESULTS: The overall in-hospital incidence of SAM was 6.6% (52/785). In 41 patients, SAM was identified in the operating room, and in 11 patients, it was found postoperatively on the predischarge echocardiogram. Of the 41 patients with intraoperative SAM, 35 (85.4%) had resolution with medical management and 6 (14.6%) required surgical repeat repair while in the operating room. No patient required mitral valve replacement for persistent SAM. Postoperatively, 11 new cases were identified, and 7 cases of resolved intraoperative SAM recurred. These postoperative cases of SAM were managed according to the postoperative SAM algorithm. At last follow-up, 17 (94.4%) of 18 patients had resolution of SAM and 1 (5.6%) patient had mild SAM (less than mild mitral regurgitation, peak left ventricular outflow tract gradient < 50 mm Hg) and were asymptomatic. No patients with postoperative SAM required reoperation after their initial surgery. The median echocardiographic follow-up was 1.3 years. During follow-up, 1 early death (noncardiac) and 2 late deaths (1 noncardiac, 1 of unknown etiology) occurred.

CONCLUSIONS: SAM is a relatively frequent complication after MVRr and can occur intraoperatively or postoperatively. A systematic approach addressing perioperative SAM after MVRr yields excellent mid-term results.

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