JOURNAL ARTICLE

Assessment of pain in sedated and mechanically ventilated patients: an observational study

M-M Jeitziner, R Schwendimann, J P H Hamers, O Rohrer, V Hantikainen, S M Jakob
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 2012, 56 (5): 645-54
22404146

BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients often undergo unpleasant procedures. We quantified the effects of an unpleasant stimulus on physiological and behavioral parameters and evaluated how they are modified by sedation and analgesia.

METHODS: A 6-month study in the 30-bed intensive care unit (ICU) of a university hospital examined 21 sedated patients from various diagnostic groups. Hemodynamic and respiratory parameters, pupil size, facial expression, muscle tone, body movement, and the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS) score were measured before and during intratracheal suctioning, first in sedated patients, after sedation was stopped, and after an opioid bolus.

RESULTS: Before intratracheal suctioning, patients had RASS scores of -1.8 ± 1.2 (mean ± standard deviation; sedation), -0.6 ± 1.7 (sedation stop), and -0.9 ± 1.4 (analgesia) (P = 0.014). Intratracheal suctioning significantly increased RASS during both sedation (to -0.6 ± 1.7) and sedation stop (to 1.0 ± 1.5) (both P < 0.01), but not during analgesia. Systolic blood pressure increased during sedation (by 9 ± 10 mmHg), during sedation stop (by 15 ± 17 mmHg) and during analgesia (by 9 ± 4 mmHg; all P < 0.01), but diastolic pressure only during sedation and sedation stop (both P < 0.01). Facial expression, body movement, and muscle tone changed significantly during the episodes of intratracheal suctioning. Heart rate, tidal volume, and pupil size remained stable under all conditions.

CONCLUSIONS: Intratracheal suctioning evoked significant changes in some physiological and behavioral parameters. Some physiological changes were suppressed by analgesia, but at our ICU's standard doses, neither analgesia nor sedation attenuated changes in behavioral parameters at the intensity tested.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
22404146
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"