Steady-state plasma concentration profile of transdermal rotigotine: an integrated analysis of three, open-label, randomized, phase I multiple dose studies

Jan-Peer Elshoff, Marina Braun, Jens-Otto Andreas, Michelle Middle, Willi Cawello
Clinical Therapeutics 2012, 34 (4): 966-78

BACKGROUND: The dopamine agonist rotigotine is formulated in a transdermal delivery system (patch) for once-daily application. It has been reported as efficacious in the treatment of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and restless legs syndrome.

OBJECTIVE: This article summarizes the results of 3 clinical studies conducted to characterize the 24-hour pharmacokinetic profile of rotigotine in steady state and the effect of different patch application sites on this profile. In addition, the relative bioavailability of a single, large patch versus 2 smaller patches was assessed.

METHODS: One Phase I study (SP871) assessed the steady-state pharmacokinetic properties at different application sites at a rotigotine maintenance dose of 3 mg/24 hours in healthy participants. Due to tolerability issues, the steady-state pharmacokinetic properties of rotigotine at higher doses (8 mg/24 hours) was assessed in 2 Phase I studies (SP630, SP651) in early-stage PD patients. Relative rotigotine bioavailability from a 40 cm(2) patch versus 2 × 20 cm(2) patches (SP651) and from a 15 cm(2) patch versus 1 × 5 cm(2) + 1 × 10 cm(2) patches (SP871) was also evaluated. Rotigotine concentrations in plasma were analyzed using a validated LC-MS/MS method. The pharmacokinetic variables were calculated using standard noncompartmental analysis.

RESULTS: Release of rotigotine to the skin was 31% to 62% of total drug content in the patch. Variability of rotigotine exposure was low within participants (15%) compared with the variability observed between participants (54%). Rotigotine exposure increased proportionally in the therapeutic dose range of 2 mg/24 hours to 8 mg/24 hours. Plasma concentrations at steady state were stable over the 24-hour patch-on period. Delivery via a single, large patch compared with a combination of smaller patches did not appear to influence exposure to rotigotine. Bioavailability showed some variability depending on patch application site (hip, shoulder, abdomen, flank, thigh, upper arm); the respective mean ratios for AUC ranged between 0.87 (abdomen vs flank) and 1.46 (shoulder vs thigh).

CONCLUSIONS: Continuous rotigotine delivery via a once-daily transdermal patch generated stable mean steady-state 24-hour plasma concentrations in healthy participants as well as patients with early-stage PD. Doses were achieved either by application of 1 large patch or a combination of smaller patches, resulting in the same total surface area.

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