JOURNAL ARTICLE
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

Steady-state plasma concentration profile of transdermal rotigotine: an integrated analysis of three, open-label, randomized, phase I multiple dose studies

Jan-Peer Elshoff, Marina Braun, Jens-Otto Andreas, Michelle Middle, Willi Cawello
Clinical Therapeutics 2012, 34 (4): 966-78
22401642

BACKGROUND: The dopamine agonist rotigotine is formulated in a transdermal delivery system (patch) for once-daily application. It has been reported as efficacious in the treatment of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and restless legs syndrome.

OBJECTIVE: This article summarizes the results of 3 clinical studies conducted to characterize the 24-hour pharmacokinetic profile of rotigotine in steady state and the effect of different patch application sites on this profile. In addition, the relative bioavailability of a single, large patch versus 2 smaller patches was assessed.

METHODS: One Phase I study (SP871) assessed the steady-state pharmacokinetic properties at different application sites at a rotigotine maintenance dose of 3 mg/24 hours in healthy participants. Due to tolerability issues, the steady-state pharmacokinetic properties of rotigotine at higher doses (8 mg/24 hours) was assessed in 2 Phase I studies (SP630, SP651) in early-stage PD patients. Relative rotigotine bioavailability from a 40 cm(2) patch versus 2 × 20 cm(2) patches (SP651) and from a 15 cm(2) patch versus 1 × 5 cm(2) + 1 × 10 cm(2) patches (SP871) was also evaluated. Rotigotine concentrations in plasma were analyzed using a validated LC-MS/MS method. The pharmacokinetic variables were calculated using standard noncompartmental analysis.

RESULTS: Release of rotigotine to the skin was 31% to 62% of total drug content in the patch. Variability of rotigotine exposure was low within participants (15%) compared with the variability observed between participants (54%). Rotigotine exposure increased proportionally in the therapeutic dose range of 2 mg/24 hours to 8 mg/24 hours. Plasma concentrations at steady state were stable over the 24-hour patch-on period. Delivery via a single, large patch compared with a combination of smaller patches did not appear to influence exposure to rotigotine. Bioavailability showed some variability depending on patch application site (hip, shoulder, abdomen, flank, thigh, upper arm); the respective mean ratios for AUC ranged between 0.87 (abdomen vs flank) and 1.46 (shoulder vs thigh).

CONCLUSIONS: Continuous rotigotine delivery via a once-daily transdermal patch generated stable mean steady-state 24-hour plasma concentrations in healthy participants as well as patients with early-stage PD. Doses were achieved either by application of 1 large patch or a combination of smaller patches, resulting in the same total surface area.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
22401642
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"