JOURNAL ARTICLE
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

Ameliorative effect of a microbial feed additive on infectious bronchitis virus antibody titer and stress index in broiler chicks fed deoxynivalenol

K Ghareeb, W A Awad, J Böhm
Poultry Science 2012, 91 (4): 800-7
22399717
Although acute mycotoxicoses are rare in poultry production, chronic exposure to low levels of mycotoxins is responsible for reduced productivity and increased susceptibility to infectious diseases. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is known to modulate immune function, but only a few studies have investigated the effect of DON on the vaccinal immune response. In addition, the effects of Mycofix select (Biomin GmbH, Herzogenburg, Austria) supplementation to DON-contaminated broiler diets have not yet been demonstrated. Therefore, an experiment with 1-d-old male broilers (Ross 308) was carried out to examine the effects of feeding DON-contaminated low-protein grower diets on performance, serum biochemical parameters, lymphoid organ weight, and antibody titers to infectious bronchitis vaccination in serum and to evaluate the effects of Mycofix select dietary supplementation in either the presence or absence of DON in broilers. In total, thirty-two 1-d-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1 of the 4 dietary treatments for 5 wk. The dietary treatments were 1) control; 2) artificially contaminated diets with 10 mg of DON/kg of diet; 3) DON-contaminated diets supplemented with Mycofix select; and 4) control diet supplemented with Mycofix select. Feeding of contaminated diets decreased (P = 0.000) the feed intake, BW (P = 0.001), BW gain (P = 0.044), and feed efficiency during the grower phase. Deoxynivalenol affected the blood biochemistry, whereas plasma total protein and uric acid concentrations in birds fed contaminated grains were decreased compared with those of the controls. Moreover, in birds fed contaminated feeds, there was a tendency to reduce triglycerides in the plasma (P = 0.090), suggesting that DON in the diets affected protein and lipid metabolism in broiler chickens. The feeding of contaminated diets altered the immune response in broilers by reducing the total lymphocyte count. Similarly, the antibody response against infectious bronchitis vaccination antigens was decreased (P = 0.003) after feeding contaminated diets, compared with the controls. Moreover, contamination of the broiler diet with DON increased the heteropil:lymphocyte ratio (stress index), suggesting that DON elevated the physiological stress responses of broilers. However, feeding of DON-containing diets did not alter the other plasma constituents, including activities of enzymes. Mycofix select addition to the DON-contaminated feed led to normal immunological and physiological functions in broilers that were comparable with those of the control group, indicating that the addition of the additive to the DON-contaminated feed of the broilers effectively alleviated the alterations caused by DON. It was concluded that broiler performance and some blood and immunological parameters were adversely affected by feeding diets contaminated with the Fusarium mycotoxin DON. However, the dietary Mycofix select supplementation as a detoxifying agent was successful in overcoming the mycotoxin-related effects.

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