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Long-term results of adjustable gastric banding in a cohort of 186 super-obese patients with a BMI≥ 50 kg/m2

K Arapis, D Chosidow, M Lehmann, A Bado, M Polanco, S Kamoun-Zana, A L Pelletier, M Kousouri, J-P Marmuse
Journal of Visceral Surgery 2012, 149 (2): e143-52
22386891

BACKGROUND: There are conflicting results concerning the bariatric effectiveness of adjustable gastric banding in super-obese patients with a Body Mass Index (BMI) more or equal to 50 kg/m(2).

METHOD: A cohort of 186 patients with a BMI greater or equal to 50 kg/m(2) who underwent adjustable gastric banding (AGB) at the Bichat-Claude-Bernard University Hospital (Paris, France) were prospectively entered into a database. The following data were recorded: BMI, percentage of BMI loss, percentage of excess weight lost (%EWL), complications, and surgical re-interventions. Loss of greater than 50% of excess weight was considered a success (primary endpoint). A %EWL of less than 25% after one year, or the removal of the gastric band was considered a failure.

RESULTS: Thirty-five men (18.8%) and 151 women (81.2%), with a mean age of 38.9 years (range: 16-65) underwent AGB between September 1995 and December 2007. The mean BMI was 55.06 kg/m(2) (range: 50-74.4). Mean follow-up was 112.5 months with a minimum of 28 months and a maximum of 172 months. The follow-up rate was maintained at 89% at ten years. The technique of AGB was by "peri-gastric dissection" in the first 115 patients (61.82%) and by "pars flaccida dissection" in 71 patients (38.17%). The gastric band was removed in 87 of 186 patients (46.8%); band ablation was due to a complication of the gastric band in 62 of these cases (33.3%), to failure of weight loss in 23 cases (12.4%), and to patient request in two cases (1%). The major complications requiring re-operation were: chronic dilatation of the proximal gastric pouch (27 patients - 14.5%), acute dilatation (21 patients - 11.3%), intragastric migration of the prosthesis (six patients - 3.2%), reflux esophagitis (six patients - 3.2%), infection of the gastric band (one patient - 0.5%), and Barrett's esophagus (one patient - 0.5%). No statistically significant difference was found between the two operative techniques with regard to the possibility of preserving the gastric band for ten years. For patients who underwent band removal, no further follow-up analysis of patient data after band ablation was performed. The results were best at two years after AGB with a median BMI of 42.72 kg/m(2), a band removal rate of 8.6% (16 of 186 patients), and a failure rate of 16.4% (28 of 170 patients) of those patients who still had their band in place. However, at 10 years, the picture was completely reversed with a band removal rate of 52.2% (47 of 90 patients), a failure rate of 22% (seven of 33 patients) of those who still had their band in place, and a median BMI of 43.43 kg/m(2).

CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic gastroplasty using the adjustable gastric band appeared to be a promising intervention for super-obese patients when the results at two years were analyzed - fairly simple to perform, with perioperative morbidity and mortality near zero. However, these results do not persist in the long-term for super-obese patients. At ten years, only 11% of patients (nine of 80) have successful bariatric results (%EWL>50%) and we were forced to remove the gastric band in 52.2% of patients (47 of 90) because of complications, regardless of the initial operative technique used. Given these results, AGB gastroplasty is not a recommended method for super-obese patients and we believe that a BMI greater or equal to 50 kg/m(2) is a contra-indication for this procedure.

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