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Early Life Eczema, Food Introduction, and Risk of Food Allergy in Children

Rajesh Kumar, Deanna M Caruso, Lester Arguelles, Jennifer S Kim, Angela Schroeder, Brooke Rowland, Katie E Meyer, Kristin E Schwarz, Jennafer S Birne, Fengxiu Ouyang, Jacqueline A Pongracic, Xiaobin Wang
Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology 2010, 23 (3): 175-182
22375277
The effect of food introduction timing on the development of food allergy remains controversial. We sought to examine whether the presence of childhood eczema changes the relationship between timing of food introduction and food allergy. The analysis includes 960 children recruited as part of a family-based food allergy cohort. Food allergy was determined by objective symptoms developing within 2 hours of ingestion, corroborated by skin prick testing/specific IgE. Physician diagnosis of eczema and timing of formula and solid food introduction were obtained by standardized interview. Cox Regression analysis provided hazard ratios for the development of food allergy for the same subgroups. Logistic regression models estimated the association of eczema and formula/food introduction with the risk of food allergy, individually and jointly. Of the 960 children, 411 (42.8%) were allergic to 1 or more foods and 391 (40.7%) had eczema. Children with eczema had a 8.4-fold higher risk of food allergy (OR, 95% CI: 8.4, 5.9-12.1). Among all children, later (>6 months) formula and rice/wheat cereal introduction lowered the risk of food allergy. In joint analysis, children without eczema who had later formula (OR, 95% CI: 0.5, 0.3-0.9) and later (>1 year) solid food (OR, 95% CI: 0.5, 0.3-0.95) introduction had a lower risk of food allergy. Among children with eczema, timing of food or formula introduction did not modify the risk of developing food allergy. Later food introduction was protective for food allergy in children without eczema but did not alter the risk of developing food allergy in children with eczema.

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