Increase in fecal primary bile acids and dysbiosis in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome

H Duboc, D Rainteau, S Rajca, L Humbert, D Farabos, M Maubert, V Grondin, P Jouet, D Bouhassira, P Seksik, H Sokol, B Coffin, J M Sabaté
Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society 2012, 24 (6): 513-20, e246-7

BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a multifactorial disease for which a dysbiosis of the gut microbiota has been described. Bile acids (BA) could play a role as they are endogenous laxatives and are metabolized by gut microbiota. We compared fecal BA profiles and microbiota in healthy subjects (HS) and patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D), and we searched for an association with symptoms.

METHODS: Clinical features and stool samples were collected in IBS-D patients and HS. Fecal BA profiles were generated using HPLC coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The fecal microbiota composition was assessed by q-PCR targeting dominant bacterial groups and species implicated in BA transformation.

KEY RESULTS: Fourteen IBS-D patients and 18 HS were included. The two groups were comparable in terms of age and sex. The percentage of fecal primary BA was significantly higher in IBS-D patients than in HS, and it was significantly correlated with stool consistency and frequency. Fecal counts of all bacteria, lactobacillus, coccoides, leptum and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii were similar. There was a significant increase of Escherichia coli and a significant decrease of leptum and bifidobacterium in IBS-D patients.

CONCLUSIONS & INFERENCES: We report an increase of primary BA in the feces of IBS-D patients compared to HS, correlated with stool consistency and frequency. A dysbiosis of different bacterial groups was detected, some of them involved in BA transformation. As the gut microbiota is the exclusive pathway to transform primary into secondary BA, this suggests a functional consequence of dysbiosis, leading to lower BA transformation.

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