[Clinical features and outcome analysis of 83 childhood Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis with HLH-2004 protocol]

Li Xiao, Ying Xian, Bi-tao Dai, Yong-chun Su, Jian-wen Xiao, Qi-cheng Zheng, Xiao-dong Zhao, Jie Yu
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi 2011, 32 (10): 668-72

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical features of Epstein-Barr virus-related hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (EBV-HLH), to analysis the outcome of HLH-2004 protocol, and to explore the prognostic factors in EBV-HLH patients.

METHODS: The clinical features at onset and outcome of HLH-2004 protocol from 83 pediatric patients with EBV-HLH enrolled from January 2006 to December 2009 in our hospital were analyzed retrospectively. Univariate and multivariate COX regression analysis were used to identify statistically significant prognostic factors.

RESULTS: (1) Among the 83 patients, 45 were males and 38 were females. The age of onset ranged from 6 months to 14 years 4 months. 44 patients were treated with HLH-2004, and 3-year overall survival (OS) was (55.8 ± 7.9)%. (2) The most common clinical features of EBV-HLH included high fever, cytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly, and coagulopathy; The respiratory symptoms, angina phlogistic, skin rashes, neurologic abnormality were rare. 97.3% of patients showed an elevation of serum ferritin, liver dysfunction and lipid metabolism disorders was found in most of EBV-HLH patients. 89.0% of patient had hemophagocytosis in bone marrow at diagnosis of EBV-HLH. (3) COX regression analysis revealed that anemia degree, serum albumin < 30 g/L, CD4:CD8 abnormity, NK cell < 3%, treatment protocol were related with the prognosis significantly (P < 0.05).

CONCLUSION: EBV-HLH in pediatric patients has severe clinical feature and poor prognosis. HLH-2004 protocol is an effective treatment for patients with EBV-HLH. Symptomatic treatment can't rescue the patients of EBV-HLH.

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