Multivariate analysis of risk factors for pulmonary complications after hepatic resection

Cinzia Nobili, Ettore Marzano, Elie Oussoultzoglou, Edoardo Rosso, Pietro Addeo, Philippe Bachellier, Daniel Jaeck, Patrick Pessaux
Annals of Surgery 2012, 255 (3): 540-50

OBJECTIVE: To generate the first evaluation of risk factors for postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) after hepatectomy.

BACKGROUND: Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) after surgery are associated with significant morbidity and have been shown to increase the length of hospital stays. Several studies have been conducted to identify the risk factors for PPCs after abdominal surgery.

METHODS: Between January 2006 and December 2009, 555 patients underwent elective hepatectomy. We prospectively collected and retrospectively analyzed demographic data, pathological variables, associated pathological conditions, and preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables. The dependent variables studied were the occurrence of PPCs, pleural effusion, pneumonia, and pulmonary embolism.

RESULTS: Multivariate analysis identified 5 independent risk factors for global PPCs: prolonged surgery [odds ratio (OR) = 1], presence of a nasogastric tube (OR = 1.6), intraoperative blood transfusion (OR = 1.7), diabetes mellitus (OR = 2.7), and a transverse subcostal bilateral muscle cutting incision (OR = 3.4). There were 4 independent risk factors for pleural effusion: prolonged surgery (OR = 1), surgery on the right lobe of the liver (OR = 1.6), neoadjuvant chemotherapy (OR = 2), and a transverse subcostal bilateral muscle cutting incision (OR = 2.5). There were 3 independent risk factors for pneumonia: intraoperative blood transfusion (OR = 1.9), diabetes mellitus (OR = 2.2), and atrial fibrillation (OR = 3). For pulmonary embolism, history of previous thromboembolic events was identified as the only risk factor (OR = 8.8).

CONCLUSIONS: The correction of modifiable risk factors among the identified factors could reduce the incidence of PPCs and, as a consequence, improve patient outcomes and reduce the length of hospital stays.

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