Differential effects of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) polymorphisms on cancer risk: evidence from 25 published studies

Dai-Hua Fang, Cong-Hai Fan, Qiang Ji, Bo-Xiang Qi, Juan Li, Lu Wang
Molecular Biology Reports 2012, 39 (6): 6801-9
Paraoxonase is an HDL-associated enzyme that plays a preventive role against oxidative stress, which is thought to contribute to cancer development. PON1 activity varies widely among individuals, which is in part related to two common nonsynonymous polymorphisms in the PON1 gene (Q192R and L55M). The polymorphisms in PON1 have been implicated in cancer risk. However, results from the studies to date have been conflicting. To clarify the association, a meta-analysis was performed for 7,073 cases and 9,520 controls from 25 published case-control studies. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of the association. Significant associations between PON1-L55M but not Q192R polymorphism and total cancer were observed from all the comparisons. In stratified analyses, PON1-55M allele was a risk factor for breast cancer. Similarly, increased risk was observed for prostate cancer (OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.01-1.36, P (heterogeneity) = 0.260) and Caucasian population (OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.02-1.38, P (heterogeneity) = 0.1) of the LM genotype, compared with the LL genotype. For PON1-Q192R polymorphism, PON1-192R allele was a decreased risk factor for cancer in the Asian group (RR vs QQ: OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.38-0.98, P (heterogeneity) = 0.268; QR vs QQ: OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.52-0.96, P (heterogeneity) = 0.130; RR + QR vs QQ: OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.53-0.95, P (heterogeneity) = 0.135). Although some modest bias could not be eliminated, this meta-analysis suggests that the PON1-55M allele is a risk factor for the development of cancer, in particular for breast cancer. Future studies with larger sample sizes are warranted to further evaluate these associations.

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