Efficacy of veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in acute myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock

Hyungtae Kim, Sang-Hyun Lim, Joonhwa Hong, You-Sun Hong, Cheol Joo Lee, Joon-Ho Jung, Saehwan Yu
Resuscitation 2012, 83 (8): 971-5

AIM: We analyzed the results of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated by cardiogenic shock (CS) necessitating extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and investigated for the associated risk factors for poor clinical outcomes.

METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 27 patients who required ECMO for AMI associated with CS between April 2006 and July 2010. Mean age was 63.7 ± 11.0 (range: 45-81) years, and there were 16 males (59.3%).

RESULTS: The mean duration of ECMO support was 30.2 ± 30.1 (range: 1-141)h. Cardiopulmonary resuscitations (CPR) were performed in 21 patients (77.8%) before ECMO initiation. Twenty-two patients (81.5%) were successfully weaned off ECMO, and 16 patients (59.3%) survived to discharge. The 30-day mortality was 37.0% (10/27 patients). Complications developed in 17 patients (63.0%: pneumonia in 10 patients, acute renal failure in 10 patients, massive bleeding in 4 patients, and thromboembolic event in 1 patient). The period between CPR initiation and ECMO commencement was a significant risk factor for ECMO weaning failure. High pre-ECMO serum lactate level was identified as a significant risk factor for poor survival on univariated and multivariated analysis.

CONCLUSION: ECMO support could improve survival in patients who suffer AMI associated with CS, and early ECMO initiation yields better outcomes (successful ECMO weaning).

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