Comparison of sedative drugs under peribulbar or topical anesthesia during phacoemulsification

Rafi Dogan, Aylin Karalezli, Durmus Sahin, Funda Gumus
Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging 2012, 43 (2): 121-7

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To compare dexmedetomidine and midazolam+fentanyl sedation primarily based on patient satisfaction during phacoemulsification under topical and peribulbar anesthesia.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Prospective, randomized, and double-blind study of 80 American Society of Anesthesiology grade I-II patients who underwent phacoemulsification with local anesthesia under sedation. Patients were divided into four groups (20 patients for each): dexmedetomidine and topical anesthesia, dexmedetomidine and peribulbar anesthesia, midazolam+fentanyl and topical anesthesia, and midazolam+fentanyl and peribulbar anesthesia. Patient and surgeon satisfaction were determined on a 5-point scale. The pain was determined by verbal pain scale intraoperatively and postoperatively. Drugs were given to a Ramsay sedation scale of 3. Topical and peribulbar anesthesia were performed by an ophthalmologist. Hemodynamic, respiratory, and intraocular pressure monitoring was done. Operative and recovery times were recorded.

RESULTS: In the midazolam+fentanyl groups, better patient and surgeon satisfaction scores were obtained (P < .005), verbal pain scale scores were significantly lower (P < .001), and patients needed less postoperative analgesia. Ramsay sedation scale scores were between 3 and 4 in all patients and there were no significant differences. Intraocular pressure alterations were similar between groups. Recovery time was longer in the dexmedetomidine groups (P < .05).

CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated that the midazolam+fentanyl combination provided high-level patient satisfaction scores, low-level pain scores, and shorter recovery time. Also, both of the peribulbar and topical anesthesia procedures showed similar efficiency.

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