Histomorphometric analysis following augmentation of the anterior atrophic maxilla with cancellous bone block allograft

Joseph Nissan, Vered Marilena, Ora Gross, Ofer Mardinger, Gavriel Chaushu
International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants 2012, 27 (1): 84-9

PURPOSE: Grafting with bone blocks may be required to restore the alveolar process in extremely atrophic maxillae prior to implant placement to ensure both function and esthetics. The present study was conducted to histologically and histomorphometrically evaluate the application of allograft cancellous bone blocks for the augmentation of the anterior atrophic maxilla.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients with severe atrophy in the anterior maxilla underwent augmentation with cancellous bone block allografts. Bony deficiencies of at least 3 mm horizontally and up to 3 mm vertically according to computed tomographic para-axial reconstructions served as inclusion criteria. After 6 months, implants were placed and a cylindric sample core from the graft area was collected. All specimens were prepared for histologic and histomorphometric examination.

RESULTS: Forty patients were included in the study. Eighty-three implants were placed in bone that was augmented with 60 cancellous freeze-dried bone block allografts. The implant survival rate was 98.8%. Mean follow-up was 48 ± 22 months (range, 14 to 82 months). The mean percentage of newly formed bone was 33% ± 18%, that of the residual cancellous block allograft was 26% ± 17%, and marrow and connective tissue comprised 41% ± 2%. Statistically significant histomorphometric differences regarding newly formed bone and residual cancellous block allograft were found between younger (< 40 years) and older (≥ 40 years) patients, respectively. Age did not appear to influence the percentage of marrow and connective tissue.

CONCLUSIONS: Cancellous bone block allograft is biocompatible and osteoconductive, permitting new bone formation following augmentation of extremely atrophic anterior maxillae in a two-stage implant placement procedure. New bone formation was age-dependent.

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