Renal diseases associated with hematuria in children and adolescents: a brief tutorial

John Hicks, Gary Mierau, Eric Wartchow, Karen Eldin
Ultrastructural Pathology 2012, 36 (1): 1-18
The detection of microscopic hematuria in a child's urine prompts evaluation for renal and urinary bladder causes. Microscopic hematuria identified during a routine physical examination by the pediatrician is much more common than macroscopic hematuria. Persistent microscopic hematuria is particularly worrisome and may require a percutaneous needle core kidney biopsy to determine whether the etiology is secondary to glomerular disease, tubulointerstitial disease, urinary tract infection, urinary tract structural abnormalities, medications, or toxins. This paper reviews the epidemiology, pathologic features, pathogenesis, treatment, and outcome of familial hematuria (Alport syndrome [hereditary nephritis]), thin basement membrane nephropathy), IgA nephropathy, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, and acute postinfectious glomerulonephritis.

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