Increased risks of preterm birth and a low-birth-weight baby in Thai human immunodeficiency virus-positive pregnant women with periodontitis

Pakkaporn Pattrapornnan, Timothy A DeRouen, Yupin Songpaisan
Journal of Periodontology 2012, 83 (11): 1372-81

BACKGROUND: Many studies have investigated the risks of adverse neonatal outcomes associated with the presence of periodontitis in non-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no study to investigate the risk of neonatal outcomes associated with periodontitis in HIV-infected pregnant women. The aim of this study is to measure the risk of having adverse neonatal outcomes: preterm delivery (<37 weeks of gestation), low birth weight (<2500 g at birth), and preterm and low-birth-weight baby (<37 weeks of gestation and <2500 g at birth) associated with the presence of periodontitis in HIV-infected women.

METHODS: A total of 292 HIV-infected pregnant women were interviewed for demographic information and medical history and were examined for their periodontal status during weeks 16 to 34 of gestation. Follow-up sessions were done after the delivery to record the baby's data. Periodontitis defined by various criteria were evaluated as exposures. Binomial regression (generalized linear model) was used to examine the risk ratios (RRs). Logistic regression, t tests, and χ2 test were used to examine the associations of periodontitis with adverse neonatal outcomes.

RESULTS: Forty women had preterm delivery, 39 women delivered a low-birth-weight baby, and 22 women gave birth to a baby that was preterm and low birth weight. We found significant elevated risks of having preterm delivery as RR = 3.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.29 to 7.38, low birth weight RR = 2.55, 95% CI = 1.04 to 2.65, and preterm and low birth weight as RR = 4.08, 95% CI = 1.55 to 10.76 in women who had at ≥1 5-mm periodontal pocket.

CONCLUSION: This study found a positive risk of adverse neonatal outcomes in HIV-infected pregnant women who had moderate periodontitis.

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