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Oral pyogenic granuloma--a review of 215 cases in a South Indian Teaching Hospital, Karnataka, over a period of 20 years.

INTRODUCTION: Pyogenic granuloma (PG) is a solitary, benign vascular growth. The precise cause for the development of pyogenic granuloma is unknown. It is believed, however, to be an exuberant tissue response to local irritation or trauma. Up to date, few studies have been carried out among Asians, particularly on the Indian subcontinent.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Biopsy services were researched from 1989 to 2009. Two hundred-fifteen histologically confirmed PGs were retrieved and retrospectively analyzed for incidence, age, gender, site distribution, clinical presentation and histopathology. These cases were also evaluated for recurrence.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Pyogenic granuloma accounted for 50.35% among reactive lesions in this study with a mean age of 34.27 years and a peak incidence in the third decade of life. PG was more common in females with a greater predilection for the maxillary gingivae (50.23%). Eighteen cases occurred in pregnant women. Clinically, PG occurred more frequently as pedunculated lesions (103). Gingival irritation and inflammation due to poor oral hygiene were the major precipitating factors. Histologically, PG presented a greater number of vascular channels of varied sizes, lined with plump endothelial cells, capillary budding, and chronic inflammatory cells, namely lymphocytes and plasma cells. Recurrence was seen in 14.88% of patients, predominantly in females, especially in the maxillary anterior region.

CONCLUSION: Among the reactive lesions, PG had the highest incidence. The frequency of pyogenic granuloma in the southern part of India was much higher compared to other studies. Additional epidemiological research is required to understand the frequency.

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