Anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperlipidemic effect of Semecarpus anacardium in a high fat diet: STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rat model

Haseena Banu Hedayathullah Khan, Kaladevi Siddhi Vinayagam, Balaji T Moorthy, Shanthi Palanivelu, Sachdanandam Panchanatham
Inflammopharmacology 2013, 21 (1): 37-46

INTRODUCTION: Semecarpus anacardium, known as marking nut, has been used in indigenous system of medicine against various ailments.

AIM: To evaluate the antilipidemic and anti-inflammatory effect of S. anacardium Linn. nut milk extract (SA) in Type 2 diabetic rats.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diabetes was induced in rats by feeding them with a high fat diet followed by i.p. of 35 mg/kg body weight of streptozotocin. Diabetic rats were treated with the drugs, SA (200 mg/kg body weight) and metformin (500 mg/kg body weight) for 30 days. Antilipidemic effect of the drug was established by studying the lipoprotein alterations and also the alterations in the lipid profile and lipid metabolizing enzymes in the experimental group of rats. The effect of the drug on the expression of PPAR γ was also studied. To determine the anti-inflammatory effect of the drug, the levels of inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6 and also C-reactive protein were determined.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Semecarpus anacardium nut milk extract at a dosage of 200 mg/kg orally significantly (p < 0.05) reduced and normalized the alterations in the lipid metabolism in diabetic rats effectively than metformin. SA treatment significantly (p < 0.05) increased the mRNA expression of PPAR γ, thereby establishing the antilipidemic effect of the drug. The increase in the levels of inflammatory cytokines were significantly (p < 0.05) brought down to near normal levels on treatment with the drug SA.

CONCLUSION: The present study thereby establishes the antilipidemic and anti-inflammatory effect of the drug. Thus, by decreasing the alterations in the lipid metabolism and inflammatory status, the drug can effectively improve the insulin sensitivity in rats and can serve as an excellent drug in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

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