Contrast media-induced nephropathy in patients undergoing angiography prior to or during vascular surgery: a systematic review

F Zaraca, C J Wiedermann, H Ebner
Minerva Chirurgica 2011, 66 (6): 553-60
Nephropathy induced after administration of contrast medium is an acute and severe complication that is of particular concern in vascular surgery. While patients undergoing coronary procedures have been extensively studied, there is a paucity of data on pre- and intraoperative prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy in vascular surgery patients. There is lack of a robust analysis exploring the additive effect of pre- or intraoperative administration of drugs such as N-acetylcysteine, dopamine and sodium bicarbonate in addition to adequate hydration in patients undergoing angiography prior to or after completion of vascular surgery. A systematic review of contrast-induced nephropathy after angiography in patients undergoing vascular surgery was carried out. Eligible trials were sought by multiple methods, and the pooled odds ratios for contrast-induced nephropathy were computed under a random effects model. Twenty-one publications were identified for screening and 6 studies were included for systematic review. All 6 studies investigated preoperative angiography-related contrast-induced nephropathy; one study also investigated completion angiography. The overall frequency of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients undergoing vascular surgery was 9.2% (79/862). Risk factors for contrast-induced nephropathy identified were age >70 years, high contrast volume, pre-existing renal disease and antihypertensive medication. Two studies found that administration of N-acetylcysteine prior to angiography does not provide added benefit in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy. Advanced age and pre-existing renal and vascular risk factors such as arterial hypertension expose vascular surgery patients to increased risk of contrast-induced nephropathy. Those undergoing completion angiography appear to be at even higher risk, particularly if severely azotemic. Further randomized clinical trials analyzing strategies for preventing contrast-induced nephropathy are needed.

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