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The impact of adjunctive iliac stenting on femoral-femoral bypass in contemporary practice.

OBJECTIVES: Most reports of femoral-femoral bypass (FFB) were published before the era of endovascular intervention. This study examines the utilization and impact of adjunctive endovascular intervention on FFB in contemporary practice.

METHODS: We reviewed 253 FFB performed in 247 patients between 1984 and 2010. Primary endpoints, including graft patency, primary-assisted patency, limb salvage, and survival, were assessed using Kaplan-Meier life-table analysis. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine predictors of primary endpoints.

RESULTS: The indication for FFB included claudication (27%; n = 69) and critical limb ischemia (72%; n = 184). Forty-eight patients (19%) were treated urgently for acute ischemia. Mean follow-up was 5.6 ± 5.5 years. Over the study interval, adjunctive iliac percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA)/stent placement increased significantly from 0% to 54% (P trend < .001), while the rate of axillofemoral bypass or no inflow procedure decreased from 100% to 46% (P trend < .001). Despite increased utilization, iliac PTA/stenting was associated with decreased 5-year primary graft patency of 44% compared with 74% for axillofemoral bypass patients and 71% in patients with no adjunctive inflow procedure (P = .004). Patients with inflow iliac PTA/stents also had diminished 5-year assisted primary patency of 61% compared with 85% for axillofemoral bypass patients and 87% in patients without inflow revascularization (P = .002). Adjunctive iliac PTA/stenting did not impact limb salvage or overall survival. Five-year primary patency among claudicants and critical leg ischemia patients was 65% and 68%, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of iliac PTA/stent placement in conjunction with FFB has increased significantly over time in contemporary practice. Reliance on iliac stent placement for FFB inflow is paradoxically associated with both diminished primary and assisted primary graft patency when compared with historical controls. These findings highlight the importance of patient selection and inflow consideration when performing FFB.

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