Comparison of the sequential organ failure assessment score with the King's College Hospital criteria and the model for end-stage liver disease score for the prognosis of acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure

Evangelos Cholongitas, Eleni Theocharidou, Panayota Vasianopoulou, Alex Betrosian, Steve Shaw, David Patch, James O'Beirne, Banwari Agarwal, Andrew K Burroughs
Liver Transplantation 2012, 18 (4): 405-12
Acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure (ALF) is a complex multiorgan illness. An assessment of the prognosis is essential for the accurate identification of patients for whom survival without liver transplantation (LT) is unlikely. The aims of this study were the comparison of prognostic models [King's College Hospital (KCH), Model for End-Stage Liver Disease, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA), and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II)] and the identification of independent prognostic indicators of outcome. We evaluated consecutive patients with severe acetaminophen-induced ALF who were admitted to the intensive care unit. At admission, demographic, clinical, and laboratory parameters were recorded. The discriminative ability of each prognostic score at the baseline was evaluated with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). In addition, using a multiple logistic regression, we assessed independent factors associated with outcome. In all, 125 consecutive patients with acetaminophen-induced ALF were evaluated: 67 patients (54%) survived with conservative medical management (group 1), and 58 patients (46%) either died without LT (28%) or underwent LT (18%; group 2). Group 1 patients had significantly lower median APACHE II (10 versus 14) and SOFA scores (9 versus 12) than group 2 patients (P < 0.001). The independent indicators associated with death or LT were a longer prothrombin time (P = 0.007), the inspiratory oxygen concentration (P = 0.005), and the lactate level at 12 hours (P < 0.001). The KCH criteria had the highest specificity (83%) but the lowest sensitivity (47%), and the SOFA score had the best discriminative ability (AUC = 0.79). In conclusion, for patients with acetaminophen-induced ALF, the SOFA score performed better than the other prognostic scores, and this reflected the presence of multiorgan dysfunction. A further evaluation of SOFA with the KCH criteria is warranted.

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