Vein bypasses to branches of pedal arteries

Francisco Cardoso Brochado-Neto, Marcus Vinícius Martins Cury, Suellen Stevam Timotheo Bonadiman, Marcelo Fernando Matielo, Sérgio Roberto Tiossi, Marcos Roberto Godoy, Katsumi Nakano, Roberto Sacilotto
Journal of Vascular Surgery 2012, 55 (3): 746-52

OBJECTIVE: We report a retrospective analysis of our experience in bypass vein graft surgery to lateral tarsal, medial plantar, and lateral plantar arteries for treatment of critical limb ischemia (CLI).

METHODS: Between January 1991 and February 2010, we performed 137 inframalleolar bypass graft surgeries; of these, 25 (18%) were conducted using foot branch arteries for distal implant. All patients were treated for CLI and most had extensive infrapopliteal atherosclerotic disease (TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus D). Mean follow-up was 46.32 months (range, 0-144 months). Main end points analyzed were cumulative patency, limb salvage, and survival. Statistic analysis of all end points was performed using Kaplan-Meier survival curves.

RESULTS: There was a predominance of men (64%), and the group mean age was 66.3 years. Diabetes mellitus was the main associated disease. Eighty percent of ulcers or gangrene were restricted to the midfoot (Rutherford V CLI classification). There was a predominance of short-length grafts using the great saphenous vein as the main conduit (72%). The medial plantar artery was the main outflow artery (52%). Early graft occlusion occurred in four patients (primary failure rate, 16%). Secondary patency at 1 and 3 years was 49% and 36.8%, respectively, and limb salvage was 81.7% and 69%, respectively. Nine major amputations occurred, and 10 other minor amputations were necessary. Survival rate at 3 years was 65.4%, and 67% of patients maintained ambulation. Surgical mortality was 8%. No condition was associated with worse results with regard to secondary patency, limb salvage, or survival.

CONCLUSIONS: Long-term results for developed foot branch bypass demonstrated good results for limb salvage, and it is an acceptable surgery for patients with extensive atherosclerotic disease.

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