JOURNAL ARTICLE

Glutathione peroxidase-2 and selenium decreased inflammation and tumors in a mouse model of inflammation-associated carcinogenesis whereas sulforaphane effects differed with selenium supply

Susanne Krehl, Maria Loewinger, Simone Florian, Anna P Kipp, Antje Banning, Ludger A Wessjohann, Martin N Brauer, Renato Iori, Robert S Esworthy, Fong-Fong Chu, Regina Brigelius-Flohé
Carcinogenesis 2012, 33 (3): 620-8
22180572
Chronic inflammation and selenium deficiency are considered as risk factors for colon cancer. The protective effect of selenium might be mediated by specific selenoproteins, such as glutathione peroxidases (GPx). GPx-1 and -2 double knockout, but not single knockout mice, spontaneously develop ileocolitis and intestinal cancer. Since GPx2 is induced by the chemopreventive sulforaphane (SFN) via the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/Keap1 system, the susceptibility of GPx2-KO and wild-type (WT) mice to azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS)-induced colon carcinogenesis was tested under different selenium states and SFN applications. WT and GPx2-KO mice were grown on a selenium-poor, -adequate or -supranutritional diet. SFN application started either 1 week before (SFN4) or along with (SFN3) a single AOM application followed by DSS treatment for 1 week. Mice were assessed 3 weeks after AOM for colitis and Nrf2 target gene expression and after 12 weeks for tumorigenesis. NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductases, thioredoxin reductases and glutathione-S-transferases were upregulated in the ileum and/or colon by SFN, as was GPx2 in WT mice. Inflammation scores were more severe in GPx2-KO mice and highest in selenium-poor groups. Inflammation was enhanced by SFN4 in both genotypes under selenium restriction but decreased in selenium adequacy. Total tumor numbers were higher in GPx2-KO mice but diminished by increasing selenium in both genotypes. SFN3 reduced inflammation and tumor multiplicity in both Se-adequate genotypes. Tumor size was smaller in Se-poor GPx2-KO mice. It is concluded that GPx2, although supporting tumor growth, inhibits inflammation-mediated tumorigenesis, but the protective effect of selenium does not strictly depend on GPx2 expression. Similarly, SFN requires selenium but not GPx2 for being protective.

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