Immunogenicity and safety of inactivated monovalent 2009 H1N1 influenza A vaccine in immunocompromised children and young adults

Hana Hakim, Kim J Allison, Lee-Ann Van De Velde, Yimei Li, Patricia M Flynn, Jonathan A McCullers
Vaccine 2012 January 20, 30 (5): 879-85

BACKGROUND: Influenza vaccination is recommended for immunocompromised patients.

METHODS: Children (6 months to 21 years) with cancer, HIV infection, or sickle cell disease (SCD) received 1 or 2 doses of pandemic 2009 H1N1 monovalent influenza vaccine (H1N1 MIV). Safety and tolerability, hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and microneutralization (MN) antibody titers were measured against 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus after each dose. Seroprotection (SP) and seroconversion (SC) rates were determined.

RESULTS: 103 participants were enrolled and 99 were evaluable (39 with HIV, 37 with cancer and 23 with SCD). Mean age (±SD) was 7.9 (±5.4) years for cancer participants, 18.0 (±3.5) for HIV, and 13.3 (±4.2) for SCD. 54% were males; 65% black; and 96% had received seasonal influenza vaccine. HIV-infected participants had a median CD4 count of 625 cells/mm(3) (range, 140-1260). 46% had an undetectable HIV viral load and 41% were perinatally infected. No participant had vaccine-related serious adverse events. None developed influenza A proven illness during the 6 months after the vaccine. Local injection reactions were reported in 29% and systemic reactions in 42% after the first dose of vaccine. SC and SP were achieved after the last dose in 48% and 52%, respectively, of participants with leukemia or lymphoma, 50% and 75% of participants with solid tumors, 63% and 92% of HIV-infected participants, and 74% and 100% of participants with SCD.

CONCLUSION: H1N1 MIV was safe and well tolerated. H1N1 MIV resulted in an adequate immune response in children with SCD. It was only modestly immunogenic in cancer or HIV participants.

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