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JOURNAL ARTICLE

Usefulness of transesophageal echocardiography to confirm clinical utility of CHA2DS2-VASc and CHADS2 scores in atrial flutter

Milind G Parikh, Zaid Aziz, Kousik Krishnan, Christopher Madias, Richard G Trohman
American Journal of Cardiology 2012 February 15, 109 (4): 550-5
22133753
The CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc and CHADS(2) risk stratification schemes are used to predict thromboembolism and ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. However, limited data are available regarding the utility of these risk stratification schemes for stroke in patients with atrial flutter. A retrospective analysis of 455 transesophageal echocardiographic studies in patients with atrial flutter was performed to identify left atrial (LA) thrombi and/or spontaneous echocardiographic contrast (SEC). The CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc (Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age ≥75 years [doubled risk weight], Diabetes mellitus, previous Stroke/transient ischemic attack [doubled risk weight], Vascular disease, Age 65 to 74 years, Sex) and CHADS(2) (Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age ≥75 years, Diabetes mellitus, previous Stroke/transient ischemic attack [double risk weight]) scores were calculated to stratify the risk of stroke or transient cerebrovascular ischemic events. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed LA thrombi in 5.3% and SEC in 25.9% of patients. Using CHADS(2), LA thrombus was found in 2.2% of the low-intermediate-risk group and 8.3% of the high-risk group (p = 0.005). SEC was found in 19.8% of the low-intermediate-risk group and 32% of the high-risk group (p = 0.004). Using CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc, LA thrombus was found in 1.7% of the low-intermediate-risk group and 6.5% of the high-risk group (p = 0.053). SEC was found in 11.8% of the low-intermediate-risk group versus 30.9% of the high-risk group (p = 0.004). The sensitivity for LA thrombus/SEC with a high CHADS(2) and CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score was 64.8% and 88.7%, respectively (p = 0.0001). The specificity for LA thrombus/SEC with high CHADS(2) and CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc scores was 52.6% and 28.9%, respectively (p = 0.0001). In conclusion, both CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc and CHADS(2) scores are useful for stroke risk stratification in patients with atrial flutter. CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc had greater sensitivity for LA thrombus and SEC detection at the cost of reduced specificity.

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